The Zoetrope produces the illusion of movement by viewing individual images through narrow slits in a rotating cylinder. The device was created with the name Doedaleum in 1833 by English mathematician William George Horner (1786-1837).
The Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell improved Horner’s original design in 1868 by introducing concave lenses to the slits, eliminating distortion.
Although patents for Zoetrope-like devices were registered in numerous countries from 1867, William F. Lincoln actually patented the name Zoetrope, in 1887, in the United States. In England, the London Stereoscopic and Photographic Company sold a number of Wheel of Life or Zoetrope models.

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