Hans Gruber
Hans Gruber (or Gruwer) worked in Nuremberg as a clock maker. He was registered as a master locksmith in 1552 and made clocks, watches, sundials, astronomical compendia and gunnery instruments dating between 1565 and 1583. For adjusting his sundials to the vertical he adopted the 'needle-level' invented in 1552 by his fellow-citizen Christian Heiden. Gruber's maker's mark is HG with crossed spades within a shield.

For instruments by Hans Gruber, see:
   Sun And Moon Dial, Signed by Hans Gruber, Nuremberg, circa 1570 (Oxford, MHS)


E. Zinner, Deutsche und Niederl?ndische astronomische Instrumente des 11. bis 18. Jahrhunderts (2nd ed., Munich, 1967), p. 327; P. Gouk, The Ivory Sundials of Nuremberg 1500-1700 (Cambridge, 1988), pp. 64-5.

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