Thomas Gemini
Thomas Gemini (c.1510-62) came to England from the Low Countries and set up in London as an engraver, printer and mathematical instrument maker. In his engraving work he produced maps, portraits and book illustrations, and he received an annuity of
10 from Henry VIII for his Anatomy of 1545, whose engravings were plagiarised from those of Vesalius' anatomical text of 1543.

Gemini, who often signed his surname with the zodiacal symbol for Gemini, remained in favour with subsequent monarchs and produced astrolabes for both Edward VI (1552) and Elizabeth (1559). He also advertised his ability to supply all of the instruments discussed in Leonard Digges's Tectonicon of 1556.

As perhaps the first to establish a commercial instrument workshop in London, Gemini is one of the most important figures in the creation of the instrument trade in England.

For instruments by Thomas Gemini, see:
   Astrolabe, Signed by Thomas Gemini, London, Dated 1559 (Oxford, MHS)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Thomas Gemini, English, Mid 16th century (Firenze, IMSS)
   Quadrant, Attributed to Thomas Gemini, London, Dated 1551 (London, BM)
   Quadrant, Signed by Thomas Gemini, English, Mid 16th century (Firenze, IMSS)


A. M. Hind, Engraving in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (3 vols., Cambridge, 1952-64), pp. 39-58; G. L'E. Turner, "Mathematical instrument-making in London in the 16th century", in S. Tyacke (ed.), English Map Making 1500-1650 (London, 1983), pp. 93-106.

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