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 Glossary
 A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | 112 to 124 of 227 glossary terms
 magic square: square grid with a number in each cell for which the sum of each row, column and diagonal is the same. magnetic compass: instrument indicating directions by a magnetic needle, see article on the compass. magnetic deviation: the angle between geographical north and the direction indicated by a compass needle. magnitudes: numbers in a scale of the relative brightnesses of the stars, 1 being the brightest. mariner's astrolabe: altitude-measuring instrument for finding latitude at sea, having a heavy brass or bronze ring, suspended by a shackle and ring, with a degree scale and a centrally-pivoted alidade. mater: part of an astrolabe, see article on the astrolabe. mathematical compendium: compound instrument for performing various functions in practical mathematics. mathematical instruments: collections of instruments of assorted kinds for performing functions in practical mathematics. measuring rod: an instrument used to measure distances or depths. See also gauging rod. measuring rods: see measuring rod. meridian: the plane containing the observer and both celestial poles, or containing the observer, the zenith and the pole, or, more colloquially, the north-south line at a particular position on the earth. meridian circle: circular scale of degrees which in use is aligned with the meridian. mining instruments: in this period mining instruments were principally for surveying, adapted for the special conditions of working underground in mines.
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