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London
London had the only commercial instrument workshops in England during the medieval and renaissance period. As a port and growing centre for trade, the rise of practical mathematics there follows the pattern set by other flourishing mercantile centres in Europe. Thomas Gemini, Humfrey Cole, James Kynvyn, Augustine Ryther and Charles Whitwell are the best-known representatives of a developing trade through the second half of the 16th century.

For London instruments, see:
   Astrolabe, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1574 (London, BM)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Thomas Gemini, London, Dated 1559 (Oxford, MHS)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Bastien Le Seney, London, circa 1545 (London, BM)
   Astronomical Compendium, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1568 (Oxford, MHS)
   Astronomical Compendium, Signed by Charles Whitwell, London, circa 1600 (London, BM)
   Astronomical Compendium, Signed by James Kynvyn, London, Dated 1593 (London, BM)
   Astronomical Compendium, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1575 (London, BM)
   Drawing Instruments, Signed by Bartholomew Newsum, London, circa 1570 (London, BM)
   Equinoctial Dial, Signed by Charles Whitwell, London, Dated 1606 (Oxford, MHS)
   Folding Rule, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1575 (Oxford, MHS)
   Folding Rule, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1575 (Firenze, IMSS)
   Folding Rule, Signed by James Kynvyn, London, Dated 1595 (Firenze, IMSS)
   Gunner's Folding Rule, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, circa 1580 (London, BM)
   Gunner's Folding Rule, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1575 (London, BM)
   Horizontal Dial, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1579 (Oxford, MHS)
   Nocturnal, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, circa 1575 (London, BM)
   Plane Table Alidade, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1582 (Oxford, MHS)
   Polyhedral Dial, Attributed to Nicolaus Kratzer, London, circa 1525 (Oxford, MHS)
   Proportional Instrument, Signed by James Kynvyn, London, Dated 1597 (Firenze, IMSS)
   Quadrant, Attributed to Thomas Gemini, London, Dated 1551 (London, BM)
   Ring Dial, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, circa 1575 (London, BM)
   Sector, Attributed to James Kynvyn, London, circa 1600 (Oxford, MHS)
   Sector, Signed by Robert Beckit, London, Dated 1597 (Oxford, MHS)
   Theodolite, Signed by Humfrey Cole, London, Dated 1586 (Oxford, MHS)

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