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Cologne
Cologne on the River Rhine in northern Germany was a member of the Hanseatic League and the seat of powerful archbishops. An important centre of trade in the later middle ages, and with a university of repute in the fifteenth century, Cologne was in decline as a commercial and intellectual centre by the later 16th century, but it is remembered in this period of instrument history for the work of Caspar Vopel.

For Cologne instruments, see:
   Nocturnal And Sundial, Signed by Caspar Vopel, Cologne, Dated 1551 (London, BM)
   Nocturnal And Sundial, Signed by Caspar Vopel, Cologne, Dated 1557 (Oxford, MHS)

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