A terrestrial planisphere
This type of instrument was known as a 'speculum cosmographicum', or 'cosmographical mirror'. It is an astrolabe but with a terrestrial rather than a celestial projection. The earth is shown from the North Pole to the Tropic of Capricorn, and the reduced form of rete can be used, for example, to indicate the time anywhere on earth throughout the year.
Geographical Astrolabe, by Gillis Coignet, Antwerp, 1560 (Inv. 53211)