Venice was a republican city state with one of the most prosperous and extensive mercantile empires in Europe. It had strong connections with the programme of practical mathematics through cartography, and Venetian sea charts were in production from at least the 14th century. It is surprising, in this context, not to have a record of more vigorous instrument production:"

For Venice instruments, see:
   Gunner's Caliper, Signed by Lorenzo Batecin, Venice, 16th century (Firenze, IMSS)

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