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Louvain
Louvain or Leuven was in Brabant in the Netherlands, but is taken as belonging to the Flemish tradition of instrument making. An important university founded in 1423 helped to create the climate where an instrument workshop was founded in about 1530 and flourished through much of the century, directed at first by the cartographer Gerard Mercator in association with the mathematician and physician Gemma Frisius, and later by Gemma's 'nephew' Gualterus Arsenius. The Louvain workshop benefited from political links to Spain and throughout the Habsburg empire, and its products became known through much of Europe.

For Louvain instruments, see:
   Astrolabe, Signed by Gualterus Arsenius, Louvain, Dated 1572 (Firenze, IMSS)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Regnerus Arsenius, Louvain, Dated 1565 (Oxford, MHS)
   Astronomical Ring Dial, Signed by Gualterus Arsenius, Louvain, Dated 1572 (Leiden, Boerhaave)
   Astronomical Ring Dial, Attributed to Johannes Motter, Louvain, Mid 16th century (Oxford, MHS)
   Astronomical Ring Dial, Signed by Gualterus Arsenius, Louvain, Dated 1567 (Oxford, MHS)
   Cross-staff, Signed by Gualterus Arsenius, Louvain, Dated 1571 (London, BM)
   Crucifix Dial, Signed by Adriaan Zeelst, Louvain, Dated 1588 (Oxford, MHS)
   Theodolite And Sundial, Attributed to Gualterus Arsenius, Louvain, circa 1570 (Oxford, MHS)

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