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Antwerp
Antwerp falls within the Flemish region of instrument making and was important in the late sixteenth century, at a time when the city was a trading centre for Europe, particularly in fabric. Although the city's prosperity was shattered by the widespread killing and plunder of the Spanish army in 1576, the mathematical arts survived into the early seventeenth century. Cartography was an important branch of practical mathematics in Antwerp, where the production of maps and atlases was encouraged by the celebrated printing house of Christoph Plantin, which also acted as an agent for the sale of instruments and globes. The most famous cartographer in Antwerp during this period was Abraham Ortelius, while among the instrument makers were Gillis Coignet and Michiel Coignet.

For Antwerp instruments, see:
   Astrolabe, Signed by Gillis Coignet, Antwerp, circa 1575 (London, BM)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Michiel Coignet, Antwerp, Dated 1601 (Leiden, Boerhaave)
   Astrolabe, Signed by Gillis Coignet, Antwerp, Dated 1560 (Oxford, MHS)
   Astronomical Ring Dial, Signed by Antoine de Succa, Antwerp, Dated 1600 (Oxford, MHS)
   Nocturnal And Sundial, Signed by Michiel Coignet, Antwerp, Dated 1598 (Oxford, MHS)
   Surveying Instrument, Signed by Adrianus Descrolieres, Antwerp, Dated 1579 (Oxford, MHS)

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