'V. C.' is found as the signature on two English compendia from the 16th century. One is in Oxford; the other, in the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, bears the date 1557. The identity of 'V. C.' has not been determined. Some scholars have suggested that the maker was Humfrey Cole, but his style of engraving is now thought to be too distinctive. Another theory is that 'V.C.' was a Flemish craftsman employed by Thomas Gemini.