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 154 to 158 of 227 glossary terms 
 polar dial: type of sundial, see article on the sundial.
 polyhedral dial: sundial with hour lines on various faces of a solid figure, see article on the sundial.
 prime vertical: celestial great circle passing through the east and west points and the zenith.
 primum mobile: instrument for finding the sines and versed signs of angles, see article on the primum mobile.
 projection: translation of a figure on to a plane or curved surface using straight lines in a systematic way. For example, a spherical surface can be projected on to a plane (the plane of projection) by means of straight lines drawn from all points on the surface to a certain defined point (the point of projection) and marking where they intersect the plane. In a stereographic projection, such as is used for the ordinary astrolabe, points on a containing circle are projected on to an equatorial plane from one pole; in an orthographic projection, such as is used in a Rojas design of universal astrolabe, the point of projection is at infinity and the projection lines are parallel.

