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George Graham

Graham was trained by clockmaker Thomas Tompion, and continued Tompion 's high quality craftsmanship following his death in 1713. Graham became one of London's most skilled and influential makers, and gained international renown. He worked continuously on refinement of techniques and is credited various improvements in the production and design of scientific instruments, including the introduction of the cylinder escapement for watches, improvements to the pendulum clock, inventing mercury compensation pendulum, and the first chronograph. He also invented the dead beat escapement c1715. Graham did not patent his inventions, believing that other watchmakers should be able to use his innovations.

The Clockmakers Guild recruited mathematical instrument makers as both practices required work to a high degree of precision on brass. Both Thomas Tompion and George Graham were makers of both clocks and other scientific instruments. Alongside clocks, Graham's contribution to astronomy is also significant producing tellurions (early orreries) showing the geared motions of the sun, moon and earth. He is also known to have sold transit and zenith instruments and astronomical clocks.

Leading makers achieved public recognition in an age where people were increasingly appreciative of technology and engineering. George Graham and others including John Dollond Snr, Jesse Ramsden, Edward Troughton, and William Simms were all elected to the Royal Society.

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